To function, hardware requires physical connections that allow components to communicate and interact. A bus provides a common interconnected system composed of a group of wires or circuitry that
coordinates and moves information between the internal parts of a computer. HARDWARE CONNECTIONS

A bus is characterized by two features: how much information it can manipulate at one time, called the bus width, and how quickly it can
transfer these data.


A Serial Hardware Connections

A serial connection is a wire or set of wires used to transfer information from the CPU to an external device such as a mouse, keyboard, modem, scanner, and some types of printers.

This type of connection transfers only one piece of data at a time and is therefore slow. The advantage of using a serial connection is that it provides effective connections over long distances.

A Parallel Hardware Connections

A parallel connection uses multiple sets of wires to transfer blocks of information simultaneously. Most scanners and printers use this type of connection. A parallel connection is much faster than a serial connection, but it is limited to distances of less than 3 m (10 ft) between the CPU and the external device.

Process Of Hardware Connection in Computer


First, take the monitor, computer, and all of the other parts out of their boxes. Make sure you set aside any manuals or documentation included in the boxes. You may need to refer to this documentation later. After unpacking the computer, you’ll have power cords, monitor or display device, mouse, and keyboard.

Position the computer

Set the computer monitor on the desk and put the computer on or next to the desk. Most often, the computer sits on the floor or on a shelf next to the desk or table. However, some computer desks offer a small cabinet for the computer. Place the mouse and keyboard that came with the computer on the desk or table, in front of the monitor.

Connect all cables

Computer connections
Connect all cables


Computer VGA port and cable

The monitor data cable will plug into the computer in only one place. Most monitors use either a DVI, VGA, or HDMI connector and plug into the corresponding port on the back of the computer. If your monitor only has a VGA plug and your computer only has a DVI connection, or visa versa, you need a video converter to connect your monitor.

After connecting the data cable to the computer, connect the power plug from the monitor to the surge protector.

Keyboard and mouse

USB cable and port

The keyboard and mouse usually connect to the computer with a PS/2 or USB connector. These connectors are usually on the back of the computer.

Computer power cord

For the computer, find the power cord and plug one end into the back of the computer (only one end fits). Plug the other end of the power cord into a power outlet or surge protector.

We highly recommend both the computer and monitor be powered through a surge protector to protect it from power surges. If your house experiences frequent brown outs or black outs, consider using a UPS (uninterruptible power supply) to help protect your computer.


If you have computer speakers, they can also be plugged into the back of the computer. The speakers connect to the line out or sound out port (usually green) on the back of the computer. If your speakers are powered speakers, the power cord should also be plugged into the surge protector.


Network cable

Finally, if you are using a wired Internet connection, connect, the category 5 Ethernet cable to the back of the computer. If you are planning on using Wi-Fi to connect to the Internet, only a Wi-Fi router needs to be in range of the computer.

Turn the computer on

You can now turn the computer on and allow it to load up into Windows. Upon booting up the computer, you are asked a few questions, such as your name, location, and network settings to help finalize the set up.

Connect printer and other peripherals

If you also purchased a printer, or other computer peripherals, start installing the drivers for each of the devices after the computer is running properly.

Install important software

A computer comes with some pre-installed software. However, to use the computer beyond what comes pre-installed requires you to install software (e.g., programs and games) that interest you.

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